Until recently the pine located in the eastern Mediterranean was thought that as the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensus), but recent studies showed that the Aleppo pine is rare in Syria, and has only been found in small patches in the Cadmus area.

The Brutia pine of (Pinus brutia) however, is very different in terms of biochemical and morphological and anatomical from the Aleppo pine, and it is the Brutia pines that constitute most of the natural forests in Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, Iraq and Greece.

Brutia pines are considered one of the basic environmental systems in the Eastern Mediterranean in general, and Syria in particular, it’s linked to human life, at the present time and in the future, because it’s an essential factor  to maintain the ecological balance of the areas where it’s located and those adjacent, it preserves the soil and water, and contributes as a natural filter that help to purify air of dust and industrial emissions, by its enrichment the air with oxygen; these trees provide as well an important source of timber that’s used in many traditional and modern industries, in addition, is a destination for recreation and rest, in a country with a marked temperature increase during many months of the year.

Syrian natural forests are 50 percent mixed bushes and 25 percent coniferous forests and 25 percent Deciduous forests, where the area of the natural forests in Syria is 232 000 hectares. Brutia pines cover 50,000 hectares, while Aleppo pine forests cover an area of no more than 300 hectares, it is well known that the conical forests are more efficient in carbon storage, with an estimated annual average rate of growth of conifers 3.25 tons of dry / ha / year, while the annual growth rate of broadleaves is 1.25 tons of dry matter

Obviously, conifers are highly sensitive to climate change and global warming, since they contain resins and other tannins, and especially the Brutia pines forests, which constitute the bulk of the apogee of forests in Syria, and these are considered the most efficient in carbon absorption, as well as its bio-mass is the best among Syrian forests, as a consequence its burning releases large amounts of carbon stored in this biomass, in addition to the increase in the scorched areas consisting of Brutia pines since the crisis in Syria five years ago, the insects and diseases attacking these forests are increasing in severity year after year.

However, Brutia pines showed a significant adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions in terms of climate and soil, which encouraged their utilization in the field of forest landscaping of all types (productive, preventive, and ornamental), in addition to their timber quality and its resistance to bad environmental conditions.Regardless of the direct and indirect beneficial effects of these forests, we have a great responsibility towards the future generations by providing a healthy environment suitable for the life of human beings, and at the same time by including productivity to ensure a decent level of civilization as well.


Translated by – Suzanne Abou Said Daou

Publisher: Lebanese Company for Information & Studies

Editor in chief: Hassan Moukalled

Lebanon : Dr. Zaynab Moukalled Noureddine, Dr. Naji Kodeih
Syria : Joseph el Helou, Asaad el kheir, Mazen el Makdesi
Egypt : Ahmad Al Droubi
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