The forests’ role exceeds their direct benefit to the national economy, to constitute the indirect benefits as well, which are reaching the ecological balance. Despite the difficulty of estimating or evaluating these benefits physically, but their role is quite clear regarding building a national economy, and this is due to their association and effective contribution to the increase of agricultural production and its sustainability, along with accomplishing food security on the long term.
Forest are not just vast areas of land where only trees prevail, but they are a complex Eco-system, made of a group of productive organisms (green plants), and a range of consumer objects which could increase or decrease depending on the density and diversity of vegetation, in addition to a range of degenerative objects, which are in constant interaction with the non-living remains (withered branches and leaves that fall on the ground). They are considered one of the significant renewable natural resources, due to their ability in achieving both environmental and economic balance at once. Despite all, forestry development has faced, and is still facing many problems, because investment in the field of forests is a long-term investment, which does not attract investors seeking a quick profit.
In general, dry areas suffer of the shortage of renewable natural resources (water resources, natural vegetation), and thus a shortage of food, feed and fuel, forcing citizens to do the wrong practices in the exploitation of their land and to cut their forests trees, causing environmental degradation and desertification.
Restoring the tree cover works on reducing the effect of wind, and the flow of rain water on the surface, therefore reducing the erosion of soil components, so it reduces wind erosion and water. Trees also increase soil fertility through its falling leaves and branches on the ground and their decomposing, and by that, they add organic materials to the soil and help the forests maintain and protect their water resources, including revitalizing groundwater resources. Forests also represent the highest levels of biodiversity, which environmental renewable natural resources scientists seek to achieve, since bio-diversity means the stability and balance of ecosystems. Therefore, forests represent sustainable, protective, and highly-productive ecosystems, which help sustain the productivity of other Eco-systems.
Forests also play an important role in purifying the air from pollutants, through absorbing carbon dioxide from the air, and releasing large quantities of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis.